Packing is the science, art and technology of enclosing or protecting products for distribution, storage, sale, and use. Packing also refers to the process of design, evaluation, and production of packages. Packing can be described as a coordinated system of preparing goods for transport, warehousing, logistics, sale, and end use. Packaging contains, protects, preserves, transports, informs, and sells.In many countries it is fully integrated into government, business, institutional, industrial, and personal use.
Packag labelling (en-GB) or labeling (en-US) is any written, electronic, or graphic communications on the packing or on a separate but associated label.
A choice of packing machinery includes: technical capabilities, labor requirements, worker safety, maintainability, serviceability, reliability, ability to integrate into the packaging line, capital cost, floorspace, flexibility (change-over, materials, etc.), energy usage, quality of outgoing packages, qualifications (for food, pharmaceuticals, etc.), throughput, efficiency, productivity, ergonomics, return on investment, etc.
Packing machines may be of the following general types:
Accumulating and Collating Machines
Blister packs, skin packs and Vacuum Packaging Machines
Bottle caps equipment, Over-Capping, Lidding, Closing, Seaming and Sealing Machines
Box, Case and Tray Forming, Packing, Unpacking, Closing and Sealing Machines
Cleaning, Sterilizing, Cooling and Drying Machines
Coding, Printing, Marking, Stamping, and Imprinting Machines
Conveyor belts, Accumulating and Related Machines
Feeding, Orienting, Placing and Related Machines
Filling Machines: Handling dry, powered, solid, liquid, gas, or viscous products
Inspecting, Detecting and Check weigher Machines
Orienting, Unscrambling Machines
Package Filling and Closing Machines
Palletizing, Depalletizing, Unit load assembly
Product Identification: labeling, marking, etc.
Wrapping machines: Shrink wrap, Banding
Form, Fill and Seal Machines
Other speciality machinery: slitters, perforating, laser cutters, parts attachment, etc.
Process Machinery (Product Preparation): Chopper, Crusher, Cutter, Molder, Peeler, etc.
Process Machinery (Special Product): Coating, Enrobing, Seasoning
Process Machinery (Product Cooking, Heating, and Cooling): Aseptic